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Anesthesia Information and Emergency Medicine



  1.  “anaesthesia”Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  2. Miller, Ronald D (2010). Erikson, Lars I; Fleisher, Lee A; Wiener-Kronish, Jeanine P; Young, William L, eds. Miller’s Anesthesia Seventh edition. USA: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-443-06959-8.
  3. Gelb AW, Morriss WW, Johnson W, Merry AF, Abayadeera A, Belîi N, Brull SJ, Chibana A, Evans F, Goddia C, Haylock-Loor C, Khan F, Leal S, Lin N, Merchant R, Newton MW, Rowles JS, Sanusi A, Wilson I, Velazquez Berumen A (June 2018). “World Health Organization-World Federation of Societies of Anaesthesiologists (WHO-WFSA) International Standards for a Safe Practice of Anesthesia”. Anesth. Analg126 (6): 2047–2055. doi:10.1213/ANE.0000000000002927PMID 29734240.
  4. Fitz-Henry, J (Apr 2011). “The ASA classification and peri-operative risk”Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England93 (3): 185–187. doi:10.1308/rcsann.2011.93.3.185aPMC 3348554PMID 21477427.
  5. ^ Goneppanavar, U; Prabhu, M (Sep–Oct 2013). “Anaesthesia Machine: Checklist, Hazards, Scavenging”Indian Journal of Anaesthesia57 (5): 533–540. doi:10.4103/0019-5049.120151PMC 3821271PMID 24249887.
  6. ^ Subrahmanyam M, Mohan S (Sep 2013). “Safety Features in Anaesthesia Machine”Indian Journal of Anaesthesia57 (5): 472–480. doi:10.4103/0019-5049.120143PMC 3821264PMID 24249880.
  7. ^ Standards for Basic Anesthetic Monitoring. Committee of Origin: Standards and Practice Parameters (Approved by the ASA House of Delegates on 21 October 1986, amended 20 October 2010 with an effective date of 1 July 2011)
  8. ^ Birks RJS, ed. (March 2007). RECOMMENDATIONS FOR STANDARDS OF MONITORING DURING ANAESTHESIA AND RECOVERY 4th Edition (PDF). Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
  9. ^ Reddy S, Patt RB (Nov 1994). “The benzodiazepines as adjuvant analgesics”. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management9 (8): 510–4. doi:10.1016/0885-3924(94)90112-0PMID 7531735.
  10. ^ Walker KJ; et al. (Oct 2009). “Ultrasound guidance for peripheral nerve blockade”. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews2009 (4): CD006459. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006459.pub2PMID 19821368.
  11. ^ Ullah H; et al. (April 2014). “Continuous interscalene brachial plexus block versus parenteral analgesia for postoperative pain relief after major shoulder surgery”. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2): #. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007080.pub2PMID 24492959.
  12. ^ Andreae, MH Andreae DA (17 Oct 2012). “Local anaesthetics and regional anaesthesia for preventing chronic pain after surgery”Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews2012(10): CD007105. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007105.pub2PMC 4004344PMID 23076930.
  13. ^ Klomp T; et al. (Sep 2012). “Inhaled analgesia for pain management in labour”. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews12 (9): CD009351. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009351.pub2hdl:1871/48559PMID 22972140.
  14. ^ Bell, Rae F; Dahl, Jørgen B; Moore, R Andrew; Kalso, Eija A (Jan 2006). “Perioperative ketamine for acute postoperative pain”. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews25 (1): CD004603. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004603.pub2PMID 16437490.
  15. ^ McNicol ED, Ferguson MC, Hudcova J (June 2015). “Patient controlled opioid analgesia versus non-patient controlled opioid analgesia for postoperative pain”. Cochrane Database Syst Rev(6): CD003348. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003348.pub3PMID 26035341.
  16. ^ Jones L; et al. (Mar 2012). “Pain management for women in labour: an overview of systematic reviews”. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews3 (3): CD009234. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009234.pub2PMID 22419342.
  17. ^ Novikova N; et al. (Sep 2012). “Local anaesthetic nerve block for pain management in labour”. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews12 (9): CD009351. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009351.pub2hdl:1871/48559PMID 22972140.
  18. ^ Guay J, Kopp S (January 2016). “Epidural pain relief versus systemic opioid-based pain relief for abdominal aortic surgery”. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (1): CD005059. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005059.pub4PMID 26731032.
  19. Jump up to:a b Lagasse, RS (Dec 2002). “Anesthesia Safety: Model or Myth?”. Anesthesiology97 (6): 1609–17. doi:10.1097/00000542-200212000-00038PMID 12459692.
  20. ^ Chaloner EJ, Ham RJ (Aug 2001). “Amputations at the London Hospital 1852–1857”Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine94 (8): 409–412. doi:10.1177/014107680109400812PMC 1281639PMID 11461989.
  21. ^ Braz LG (Oct 2009). “Mortality in Anesthesia: A Systematic Review”Clinics64 (10): 999–1006. doi:10.1590/S1807-59322009001000011PMC 2763076PMID 19841708.
  22. ^ Food and Drug Administration “FDA Drug Safety Communication: FDA review results in new warnings about using general anesthetics and sedation drugs in young children and pregnant women”, FDA Website, 14 December 2016. Retrieved on 3 January 2017.
  23. ^ American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists “Practice Advisory: FDA Warnings Regarding Use of General Anesthetics and Sedation Drugs in Young Children and Pregnant Women”, ACOG Website, 21 December 2016. Retrieved on 3 January 2017.
  24. ^ Kennerly Loutey “Anesthesia in Pregnant Women And Young Children: The FDA Versus ACOG”, Website, Retrieved on 3 January 2017.
  25. ^ Whitaker DK, Booth H (Mar 2013). “Immediate post-anaesthesia recovery 2013: Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland”. Anaesthesia68 (3): 288–97. doi:10.1111/anae.12146PMID 23384257.
  26. ^ Rudolph JL; et al. (Sep 2008). “Delirium is associated with early postoperative cognitive dysfunction”Anaesthesia63 (9): 941–947. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2044.2008.05523.xPMC 2562627PMID 18547292.
  27. ^ How brain ‘reboots’ itself to consciousness after anesthesiaScience Daily (18 June 2014)
  28. ^ Deiner S, Silverstein JH (2009). “Postoperative delirium and cognitive dysfunction”British Journal of Anaesthesia103(Suppl 1): i41–i46. doi:10.1093/bja/aep291PMC 2791855PMID 20007989.
  29. ^ Powell MA (1996). “Chapter 9: Wine and the vine in ancient Mesopotamia: the cuneiform evidence”. In McGovern PE, Fleming SJ, Katz SH. The origins and ancient history of wine (Food and nutrition in history and anthropology)11 (1 ed.). Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach Publishers. pp. 96–124. ISBN 978-90-5699-552-2.
  30. ^ Evans, TC (1928). “The opium question, with special reference to Persia (book review)”Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene21 (4): 339–340. doi:10.1016/S0035-9203(28)90031-0. Retrieved 2010-09-18. The earliest known mention of the poppy is in the language of the Sumerians, a non-Semitic people who descended from the uplands of Central Asia into Southern Mesopotamia …[permanent dead link]
  31. ^ Booth M (1996). “The discovery of dreams”Opium: A History. London: Simon & Schuster, Ltd. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-312-20667-3.
  32. ^ Ludwig Christian Stern (1889). Ebers G, ed. Papyrus Ebers(in German). 2 (1 ed.). Leipzig: Bei S. Hirzel. OCLC 14785083. Retrieved 2010-09-18.
  33. ^ Pahor, AL (1992). “Ear, nose and throat in ancient Egypt: Part I”The Journal of Laryngology & Otology106 (8): 677–87. doi:10.1017/S0022215100120560PMID 1402355. Retrieved 2010-09-16.
  34. ^ Sullivan, R (1996). “The identity and work of the ancient Egyptian surgeon”Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine89(8): 467–73. doi:10.1177/014107689608900813PMC 1295891PMID 8795503.
  35. ^ Ruetsch, YA; Böni, T; Borgeat, A (2001). “From Cocaine to Ropivacaine: The History of Local Anesthetic Drugs”. Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry1 (3): 175–82. doi:10.2174/1568026013395335PMID 11895133.
  36. ^ Koller, K (1884). “Über die verwendung des kokains zur anästhesierung am auge” [On the use of cocaine for anesthesia on the eye]. Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift (in German). 34: 1276–1309.
  37. ^ Bier, A (1899). “Versuche über cocainisirung des rückenmarkes” [Experiments on the cocainization of the spinal cord]. Deutsche Zeitschrift für Chirurgie (in German). 51 (3–4): 361–9. doi:10.1007/BF02792160.
  38. ^ Brill, S; Gurman, GM; Fisher, A (2003). “A history of neuraxial administration of local analgesics and opioids”. European Journal of Anaesthesiology20 (9): 682–9. doi:10.1017/S026502150300111XPMID 12974588.
  39. Jump up to:a b Toski, Judith A; Bacon, Douglas R; Calverley, Rod K (2001). The history of AnesthesiologyIn: Barash, Paul G; Cullen, Bruce F; Stoelting, Robert K. Clinical Anesthesia (4 ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-7817-2268-1.
  40. ^ Hademenos GJ, Murphree S, Zahler K, Warner JM (2008-11-12). McGraw-Hill’s PCAT. McGraw-Hill. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-07-160045-3.
  41. Jump up to:a b Fenster, JM (2001). “Power Struggle”. Ether Day: The Strange Tale of America’s Greatest Medical Discovery and the Haunted Men Who Made It. New York: HarperCollins. pp. 106–16. ISBN 978-0-06-019523-6.
  42. Jump up to:a b Hardman, Jonathan G. (2017). Oxford Textbook of Anaesthesia. Oxford University Press. p. 529.
  43. ^ Long, CW (1849). “An account of the first use of Sulphuric Ether by Inhalation as an Anesthetic in Surgical Operations”. Southern Medical and Surgical Journal5: 705–713.
  44. ^ “Miniature Portrait of Horace Wells”. National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2008-06-30.
  45. ^ Morkel, H (16 October 2013). “The painful story behind modern anesthesia”. pbs.org.
  46. ^ Baillie, Thomas W. (1965). “The first European trial of anaesthetic ether: The Dumfries claim”. British Journal of Anaesthesia37 (12): 952–957. doi:10.1093/bja/37.12.952.
  47. ^ Defalque, R. J.; Wright, A. J. (2004). “The short, tragic life of Robert M. Glover” (PDF). Anaesthesia59 (4): 394–400. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2044.2004.03671.xPMID 15023112.
  48. ^ “Sir James Young Simpson”. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 23 August 2013.
  49. ^ “Queen Victoria uses chloroform in childbirth, 1853”. Financial Times. 28 November 2017.
  50. ^ Wawersik, J. (1997-01-01). “History of chloroform anesthesia”. Anaesthesiologie und Reanimation22 (6): 144–152. PMID 9487785.
  51. ^ Zorab, John (June 1992). “On Narcotism by the Inhalation of Vapours by John Snow MD”. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine85 (6): 371.
  52. ^ “Anesthesia LAND”patinaa.blogfa.com. Retrieved 2016-12-02.
  53. Jump up to:a b Cope, Doris K. (1993). “James Tayloe Gwathmey: Seeds of a Developing Specialty”Anesthesia & Analgesia76 (3): 642–647. doi:10.1213/00000539-199303000-00035.
  54. Jump up to:a b McAuliffe, MS; Henry, B (2010). “Nurse anesthesia worldwide: practice, education and regulation” (PDF). Downloads. Silver Spring, Maryland: International Federation of Nurse Anesthetists. Retrieved 2012-06-13.
  55. ^ Abenstein, JP; Long, KH; McGlinch, BP; Dietz, NM (2007). “Is Physician Anesthesia Cost-Effective?”. Anesthesia & Analgesia98 (3): 750–7. doi:10.1213/01.ANE.0000100945.56081.ACPMID 14980932.
  56. ^ Rosenbach, ML; Cromwell, J (2007). “When do anesthesiologists delegate?”. Medical Care27 (5): 453–65. doi:10.1097/00005650-198905000-00002PMID 2725080.
  57. ^ “Five facts about AAs”. American Academy of Anesthesiologist Assistants. Archived from the original on 2006-09-26. Retrieved 2010-11-25.
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